TYPES OF VOLUNTEER & YEOMANRY (1902) #10

TYPES OF VOLUNTEER & YEOMANRY (1902) #10

From the cigarette card set “Types of Volunteer and Yeomanry”, issued by W H & J Woods Ltd of Preston in 1902.

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The Norfolk and Suffolk Yeomanry Collection: Day Trip #11

Finding myself in Norfolk for a couple of day’s holiday, I took the opportunity to visit the Muckleburgh Collection near Weybourne. Situated right on the north Norfolk coastline, it is the site of a former military camp dedicated to training anti-aircraft personnel. This privately owned museum today houses many impressive exhibits of 20th century artillery, armoured vehicles, heavy tanks and missiles, etc.

But it also contains the largest collection of exhibits from the Suffolk and Norfolk Yeomanry and, eschewing much of the modern military hardware on display, it was this collection that (unsurprisingly) attracted Suburban Militarism for a brief visit.

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Yeomanry guidons mounted up on the wall. Left is a fairly ancient guidon of the Yarmouth Troop of Yeomanry.

In preparation for the visit, I referred to two books in my possession; Volume 12 of the “Uniforms of the British Yeomanry Force” series on the Norfolk Yeomanry, and the excellently written 2012 book “The Loyal Suffolk Hussars” by Margaret Thomas and Nick Sign.

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“The Loyal Suffolk Hussars at the Centenary Review, Angel Hill, Bury St. Edmunds, 1893.” A large canvas already familiar to me as featuring on the dust jacket to a book I’d been reading.

The gallery was a wealth of information and exhibits. It was unfortunate, however, that many of them were grouped behind a large glass partition in a separate area. The lighting was good however and one had to admire at a slightly greater distance than this military history nerd would have liked.

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Exhibits (behind glass partition) relating to the Suffolk and Norfolk Yeomanry (and other local volunteer units)

The Norfolk Yeomanry had an intermittent history, coming in and out of existence a number of times since its establishment. Forming and reforming thereafter in various guises until finally disbanding in 1867. It was not until after the Boer War in 1902 that the Norfolk Yeomanry was again re-raised as the King’s Own Royal Regiment. This was thanks in no small part to the keen interest and patronage of His Majesty King Edward the VII, the regiment’s own honorary colonel.

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Loyal Suffolk Hussars officer’s shabraque with Field Service caps of the Norfolk (yellow) and Suffolk Militia Artillery.

Such influence enabled it to resist the encroachment of khaki and also saw it involved in a number of prestigious royal escort duties. This re-raised KORR had a unique and attractive full dress uniform which included this glorious black-japanned helmet with a warm yellow falling plume, an ordinary ranks helmet that I found on display. Within the partitioned area, I later spied an officer’s version of this helmet with a central star inside the laurel wreath. To the left of the photo below can just be seen some yellow cord aiguilettes, possibly used by a bandsmen of A Troop.

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The distinctive yellow facings could be seen on displayed mess jackets and also on an unusual lancer-style coat with this stark yellow plastron with Full Dress pouch (left). This unusual Levee Order tunic featured laced facings was worn between 1903-1914. The mess jacket on the right partially conceals an intricately ornamented cream mess vest underneath.

The Norfolk Yeomanry for a short time (1901-1904) switched to this Colonial Pattern helmet with a brass spike. Ordinary ranks had a plain drab pagri wrapped around the helmet, while officers were distinguished by a blue version as seen in the helmet I discovered below.

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Unlike their northern brethren, the Suffolk Yeomanry managed to more or less maintain a constant presence since its inception, in part relying on recruiting additional troops from neighbouring counties whose yeomanry had disbanded, such as Norfolk. By 1855, the title of “The Loyal Suffolk Yeomanry” was in use, with the adopted uniform being of a rifle green hussar style uniform to match (see below). This later became navy blue with red facings, a colour which would also appear on their caps.

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Suffolk Yeomanry jacket (officer)

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Examples of their busbies (red bags and white plumes) were displayed, together with officer’s epaulettes and undress headgear such as the red coloured pillbox and field service caps. The yellow cap seen below with the GviiR cypher is of the Norfolk Yeomanry.

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Some of the most interesting helmets on display were the behind glass partition. These included a Tarleton in fine condition from the green-coated Norfolk Rangers (c.1789), a helmet of the Swaffam Troop missing its crest and badge (c.1798), an officer’s imposing bicorne hat, and three fine Suffolk Yeomanry Cavalry helmets from around 1815 (centre left photo).

Always a pleasure to discover interesting artworks and images on the walls of a collection, aside from the large canvas already mentioned, some others that caught my eye included these below.

  • Left: An oil painting of the Suffolk Artillery Brigade Militia parading with their artillery pieces just visible lined up in the background.
  • Right: A fine watercolour of the King’s Own Royal Regiment (Norfolk Yeomanry) in camp around the turn of the last century.

Also, these interesting images of:

  • Norfolk Volunteer Artillery mounted on a limber, photographed on Mousehold heath, 1895.
  • A very old pencil sketch of the ‘favourite charger of Major Edgar’ (Colonel of the Suffolk Yeomanry), found in a local market.

A number of accoutrements caught my eye including a fine brass pouch belt buckle of Norfolk’s Clackclose Troop of Yeomanry Cavalry (1796). Some of the exhibit labels confused me though; the labels for the Norfolk Yeomanry and the 3rd Norfolk Rifle Volunteer Corps belt buckles below appear to have been mixed up!

A visit to a yeomanry collection is incomplete without seeing some ornate sabretaches and this collection had plenty to view. The red Loyal Suffolk Hussars sabretache developed to include a reference to being the Duke of York’s Own. Other examples included the Suffolk Borderers (bottom left) and the Norfolk Light Horse (centre bottom) which were a mounted corps developed out of the Rifle Volunteer movement in 1860 and which lasted until 1867.

Finally, a particular interest of mine of late is the colourful and decorative yeomanry bands and it was pleasing to see the Norfolk Yeomanry’s own represented in the form of yellow cord aiguilettes, two drum banners and a pair of gilt embossed kettledrums. Note the portrait of an Norfolk Yeomanry officer wearing that Levee Order dress uniform mentioned earlier (left).

On a very final note, your reporter was delighted to find in the collection a whole separate room of model soldiers, more on this perhaps in another post…

Staffordshire Yeomanry Museum: Day Trip #10

“For our homes and for our hearths” – Staffordshire Yeomanry motto

I finally made a trip out to a military museum that I’d been intending to visit for some time. The Staffordshire Yeomanry Museum is housed in the Ancient High House in Stafford and I had made plans for a visit last year. Unfortunately, problems with my train meant that I abandoned the attempt. I am glad that I’ve finally completed the trip as the collection was certainly well worth a visit.

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Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry by Richard Simkin, c.1890.

A little regimental history:

The Staffordshire Yeomanry were formed on the 4th July 1794 to counter the threat of invasion posed by revolutionary France. Known as The Staffordshire Regiment of Gentlemen and Yeomanry, they initially wore a red coat with yellow facings, a white waistcoat, white leather breeches and a Tarleton helmet. In 1808 they changed to a blue hussar style jacket, thereby adopting a colour which they would retain into the 20th century.

It was soon called out to assist the authorities put down a riot. Indeed, the keeping of domestic order became an all-too-regular occupation right up to the 1860s. It is said that they were called out to maintain civic order on more occasions than any other yeomanry regiment! The Staffordshire Yeomanry variously consisted of up to 12 troops based in towns across the county such as Lichfield, Stafford, Wolverhampton and Uttoxeter, numbering at its peak anything up to just under 1000 men in total.

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Sheet music of Staffordshire Yeomanry ‘cavalry quadrilles’

In 1838, in honour of their work in maintaining order, the new Queen bestowed upon them the title “Royal” and thenceforth the regiment became known as the “Queen’s Own Royal Regiment”. At the end of the century, they supplied men for service with the Imperial Yeomanry serving in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, securing the regiment’s first battle honour in the process, and went on to fight with great distinction in the two World Wars.

The exhibits:

Suburban Militarism (mostly) concerns itself with military history prior to the 20th century, so I’ll review some exhibits from that era. That said, the regiment’s 20th century guidon below was a fine example.

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The regiment’s guidon, displaying battle honours and the iconic ‘Staffordshire knot’ in the centre

Just prior to entering the collection which was housed on the top floor of the ancient building, I was delighted to notice a number of terrific artworks on the regiment. Much of these were by some of my favourite military artists. There were some very fine paintings of the Staffordshire Yeomanry by both Richard Simkin and Orlando Norie, none of which I’d seen anywhere before.

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Watercolours of the Staffordshire Yeomanry by Orlando Norie (Top) and Richard Simkin (Bottom).

Both artists painted the regiment appearing in force, as well as also small studies of individual yeoman as a demonstration of evolving uniforms through the ages. A photograph on display was attributed to Richard Simkin, apparently being used by him as a basis for painting a yeoman in a uniform formerly worn decades earlier.

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The Queen’s Own Royal Regiment of Staffordshire Yeomanry by Richard Simkin

There was also up on the wall a painting of which I was familiar. It is unclear who the artist is (although I’d heard a previous suggestion of it being Norie), but learnt through my visit that it might well be by Henry Martens, whose artworks I’d last seen in the Anglo-Sikh Wars exhibition earlier this year.

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Officers of the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry, c.1853

Of a number of great portraits depicting yeoman within the museum, two particularly caught my attention. John Stratford (below) served with the 14th Light Dragoons in the Anglo-Sikh Wars, Persia and in the Indian Mutiny, prior to joining the Staffordshire Yeomanry as a sergeant instructor. This remarkable veteran eventually died in 1932 at the ripe old age of 102!

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John Stratford in his Staffordshire Yeomanry uniform. He can be seen wearing his Indian General Service, Indian Mutiny, Punjab and (I believe) Army Long Service & Good Conduct medals.

Below, taken from the back of my purchased book, is an oil painting of Trooper David Riley, sometime builder and joiner turned farmer, wearing his uniform of 1852. He holds an Albert Pattern dragoon helmet with a black plume. The painting is notable for depicting a humble trooper rather than a more senior rank.

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David Riley portrait taken from the book on The Staffordshire Yeomanry by David German and Chris Coogan.

The Staffordshire Yeomanry of the middle of the 19th century had one of the smartest uniforms of any yeomanry regiment, in my humble opinion. The beautiful Albert Pattern helmet with its striking black japanning and ornate silver plate was adopted in 1850. It originally had a black plume surmounted with an acorn decoration but this was changed in 1859 to a white plume with a rosette top. This headdress changeover for all ranks apparently took up to a decade. One sergeant of the Himley Troop observed how he felt the black plume “…somehow or other puts one in mind of a funeral…“; an attitude which may explain the eventual changeover to white!

I always enjoying seeing artefacts connected with regimental musicians and bands, so it was good to see the kettledrum banner with its prominent Staffordshire knot under the crown. The silver trumpets on either side in the display were presented to the regiment in 1845, having been funded by public subscription.

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QORR Staffordshire Yeomanry drum banner and silver trumpets.
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Cigarette card by Players

The regiment eventually became hussars and adopted a busby with a red bag and white horsehair plume. Notice the difference between the officer’s busby (left & centre), with a brighter, more extravagant white plume and silver cord, and contrast with the Other Rank’s plainer plume with white cord on the right hand photograph.

Uniforms on display demonstrated developments in the tunic and also provided some examples of late 19th / early 20th century mess dress. ‘Pill box’ forage caps had beautiful silver banding and intricate scrolls on the top, which increased in intricacy for the senior ranks. Note the all-red field service cap nestling by the sleeve in the photo top-right. This replaced the pill box style for a time. A long plume holder can also be seen just visible to the right rear of the cabinet in top left photo.

And finally, below can be seen some of the accoutrements that took my attention. The officer’s black pouchbelt is adorned with ‘prickers’ for spiking enemy guns, and the trooper’s white pouchbelt and pouch is just below it. The very fine epaulettes on display had gilt Staffordshire knots. One pair of these provided an example of how the officers stored them to maintain good condition (a metal case).

Having enjoyed free entry to the museum, I thought it only correct to make a special donation to the Staffordshire Yeomanry Museum and also I purchased a book on the regiment on sale in the shop. The museum comes highly recommended for a visit by Suburban Militarism.