Home on the Range

Presenting the finished group of Cheshire Rifle Volunteers! My little cohort consists of men of the 1st Cheshire Rifle Volunteer Corps under instruction from an officer. Out on the rifle range, they are firing their Martini-Henry rifles at targets some 300 yards away. The year is 1884 and a county-wide shooting competition is but a week away. Some further rifle practice is needed if the Cheshire Grey’s best shots are to be in with a chance of winning that silver cup…

A little research revealed to me that the remains of long-forgotten Victorian volunteer rifle ranges do still exist around the UK, some being more readily visible than others. It seems that many of these rifle ranges fell out of use sometime before the Rifle Volunteers final absorption into the new Territorial Force in 1908. Perhaps a dwindling interest in the movement was to blame, but after 1908 I suspect that the Territorial Force’s closer ties to the county regiments of the regular army meant the volunteer battalions might have made use of the regular’s facilities instead.

Cheshire RVC Finished (5)
“No hits, boys? You men can actually see the target, I presume?!”

Finding appropriate drill space and rifle ranges in the early years of the movement occasionally proved problematic and caused friction with the local population. However, during the heydey of the Rifle Volunteers, the activities of the local corps could become important social events. In 1861, for example, a county-wide rifle competition was watched by a crowd estimated to be up to 30,000!

Cheshire RVC Finished (11)
“300 yards!? Wish I’d brought my spectacles…”

The Rifle Volunteer movement always emphasised high standards of marksmanship. So, target practice at the rifle range – described at the time as ‘that interesting, healthful and manly exercise which the Rifle movement is supposed to supply’ – was seen as the main way of maintaining the enthusiasm and skill of the volunteers. An 1864 account of a Buckinghamshire Volunteers rifle competition suggests that the chief source of motivation wasn’t always the silverware however:

“The Volunteers were cheered in no small way by the presence of a good sprinkling of the Ladies, who with a bravery not common to the sex, boldly faced the wind and appeared to take great interest in the proceedings…”

DSCF2960 (3)
Men of the 1st Cheshire RVC (Cheshire Greys) around the time of their formation in 1860. Most are wearing shakos of a type similar (though seemingly not the same) as the museum example below.
Cheshire Rifle Volunteer Shako.JPG
Shako of the 1st Cheshire RVC, c.1860.

A 2015 story in a provincial newspaper reported on the discovery of an old rifle range which had been apparently completely forgotten by the local community. Using a metal detector, a former soldier turned amateur archaeologist was first alerted to its existence when he discovered many Victorian-era bullets in the area, saying “...the oldest is the .577/450 Martini-Henry, which came into service in 1871 and is famous for being used during the Anglo-Zulu war of 1879.”

bullets.jpg
Bullets recovered from a Victorian Rifle Volunteer’s range in Dudley. Martini-Henry bullets centre and post-1889 Lee-Enfield’s either side.

He located an 1880 edition of a map of the area and discovered the rifle range was clearly marked upon it. The locator of the range, Mr Beddard, goes on to describe how the range is depicted on this old map:

It was marked ‘volunteers’, with the firing positions running from the Dudley direction for 850 yards, spaced out every 50 yards up to the target area. Some have marked firing trenches, some have raised firing positions.”

For my own models, I’ve simply included a distance marking post with my group, demonstrating that they are firing at a range of 300 yards from the targets. Not sure what form these posts would have taken, so I’ve simply used my imagination here!

A 2012 archaeological survey report by Herefordshire Council of a Rifle Volunteers’ firing range on Bromyard Downs provides a further insight into the nature of a Victorian Rifle Volunteer’s rifle range:

“The Bromyard range was, like most Volunteer ranges, extremely simple, though some were even more basic in the facilities they offered. Simplest of all was the range on Coppet Hill, Goodrich, with a single lane ending at a target in a small excavation marked as an old quarry, with no intermediate firing points indicated and no flagstaffs. At Aston Ingham near Newent, too, a single target was accommodated in a small delve cut into the rising ground”

geograph-3767090-by-John-M (1)
View up a disused Victorian rifle range near Etchinghill, Staffordshire

Others, it seems, could be more elaborate. Some would feature shelters for the riflemen acting as markers and observers. These took the form of emplacements behind the butts or as brick huts placed to the side of the range. Shooting platforms or trenches were sometimes provided, although I imagine that for many ranges firing positions would consist simply of open grassland with distance marker posts – as in my little diorama. In the Bromyard Downs report, it goes on to describe the target end of the range:

At the butts end, the map shows the targets (plural) as a solid square structure projecting forward from a short straight line. Immediately behind the targets was a backstop shown as an earthwork mound 11 yards long with its west end curving forwards. As well as a backstop, this may have acted as a mantlet, protecting the Volunteers on marking duty. Behind that… was a second embankment on the hillside above, no doubt to stop high rounds from ricocheting off the rising ground; the map bears the legend ‘Butts’ between the two embankments. There was also a flagstaff a few yards to the east, which would have given formal warning that firing was taking place and would have aided the shooters by indicating wind strength and direction at the target.

geograph-3767412-by-John-M
A view of the Etchinghill backstop embankment.

Stop giggling at the back! There is nothing amusing about being ‘at the butt’s end’. In the example of the Bromyard range, it seems possible that the targets consisted of a marked iron plate, a notion supported by a number of severely flattened spent bullets.

Next, I might put a label on the wooden plinth indicating what the figures represent…

Well, as the painting of these Perry Miniatures figures have been far from anything like a pain in the ‘butt’, be warned that I’ll be continuing this little Volunteer Rifle Corps project with my next small batch of riflemen representing another corps, some of which have already been glued together. More details to follow!

 

Advertisements

Men in Grey Suits

The volunteer defenders
Of Britain’s isle are we
To heaven sworn to hold it
From all invaders free
Poem by Lt.-Col Buck, 16th Kent Rifle Volunteer Corps, c.1876

My painting of the 1st Cheshire Rifle Volunteer Corps figures is now all but complete! A couple of last minute touches and varnish needed only. They’ve been a real pleasure to paint and these Perry Miniatures figures are sculpted to their usual very high standard.

Cheshire RVC (15)
Man of the 1st Cheshire R.V.C, c.1880s

Painting these riflemen, as so often in conversions, was an exercise in making decisions wherever the information was sketchy, or where the figures were missing some necessary detail. According to the Cheshire Military Museum’s own guide, the Cheshire Volunteers “after the 1870s… adopted a grey uniform rather than red.” Yet by 1881, scarlet was the only change in uniform colour permitted for volunteers in the Childers reforms of that year, so I presume the changeover to grey uniforms for all Cheshire rifle volunteers must have occurred only just in time.

Cheshire RVC (13)
Reaching for another bullet…

I’ve gone for a Vallejo Neutral Grey base colour for the uniform which seemed a reasonable match for the rifle volunteer uniform I saw on display in the Cheshire Military Museum.

Cheshire RVC (1)
Officer offering instruction at the rifle butts

Cheshire RVC (15)

The scrolling on the sleeves are a little different, but I’ve just gone with the sculpting. I’ve also gone with the assumption that they would have been issued with accoutrements similar to the regulars, wearing black expense pouches and belts as befitted riflemen but retaining a white haversack in the manner of this illustration of a similarly uniformed member of the 14th Middlesex (Inns of Court) R.V.C.

Inns of Court

Cheshire RVC (6)

I wasn’t at all certain whether my Cheshire Grey’s trousers would have had a stripe down the sides, in the usual military fashion of the day, and if so – what colour. Ultimately, I went for a red stripe in order to add a little extra colour to all that greyness.

Cheshire RVC (17)

The weapon of these Perry Zulu War British Infantry figures is a Martini-Henry rifle, a breech-loading single shot firing .450 inch bullets with an effective range of up to 400 yards. It seems that in 1879, coincidentally the year of the Anglo-Zulu War in which the weapon acquired some fame, the Rifle Volunteers did indeed begin to be issued with the Martini-Henry rifle as a replacement to the Enfield they’d previously been using. The issuing of this firearm to all the Rifle Volunteers would take up to six years to complete, but it appears that my own Cheshire Greys have got their hands on them, at any rate!

 

My intention now is to place them in some kind of diorama. As I’ve said before, I’ve little experience at creating any kind of ‘dio’, but I can just about manage a bit of grass, so that’s what it might be. The idea is to show them in a group practising their shooting, possibly at the local rifle butts, or perhaps engaged in some organised national marksmanship competition against other volunteer corps.

Cheshire RVC (2)

A rifle competition might be particularly appropriate as on display in the museum was a shooting prize (a tankard) from one such competition. All the competitors used Enfield rifles and teams of 20 men from each Rifle Volunteer battalion throughout Great Britain took part. So it seems that these Cheshire Greys might have some genuine marksmen in their ranks!

 

More to follow once I’ve got to work on the basing…

Riflemen, Form!

Form, Form, Riflemen Form
Ready, be ready to meet the storm!
Riflemen, Riflemen, Riflemen form!

“Riflemen, Form!” by Alfred, Lord Tennyson


The next figures that I’ll be tackling here at Suburban Militarism are some more from the very wonderful 28mm manufacturer, Perry Miniatures. It’s a return to plastics at this scale, which is something I haven’t attempted since my Warwickshire Yeomanry figures. I’m also hoping to paint yet more volunteer troops, this time using Perry’s Zulu War British Infantry.

perry zulu 2

Often in visits to military museums I’ll come across examples of Rifle Volunteer tunics or helmets and I thought it about time I explored a little more about this Victorian phenomenon. Hence, my current reading material, the highly informative Riflemen Form: A Study of the Rifle Volunteer Movement 1859-1908  by I. F. W. Beckett. Rifle Volunteer Corps were first established in 1859, partially as a response to the occasional public ‘invasion panics’ such as the concern over the threat posed by Napoleon III’s France. Such paranoia was stoked by ‘future war’ invasion novels such as “The Battle of Dorking”, which was even subtitled “Reminiscences of a Volunteer”.

Additionally, the growth in support for a rifle volunteer movement was a recognition of the small size of the British regular army relative to its European rivals. Furthermore, most of the British army was often overseas garrisoning the empire and not in a position to immediately counter any invasion. There was a so-called ‘Blue Water’ school of thought which placed faith in the peerless Royal Navy to prevent any invasion. However, the movement eventually managed to elicit parliamentary support for its establishment in 1859, though the government was careful to avoid any significant cost to the exchequer, the emphasis firmly being on the ‘voluntary’ aspect of the corps!

ta-7.jpg

The Zulu War British infantry set produced by Perry Miniatures,  in addition to the “Foreign Service” pattern helmets used on campaign, also come supplied with ‘Home Service’ pattern helmets. The main difference between these helmets being the Home Service helmets having regimental plate appearing on the front and also the retention of the spike on top. I thought this useful addition could provide the means to create some reasonable examples of men found in some of the Victorian Rifle Volunteer Corps, many of which sported Home Service pattern helmets such as the Volunteer helmets below.

Cheshire RVC (14)
Helmet of the 1st Cheshire rifle volunteers, c.1878. Uniform was grey with scarlet facings.
Cheshire RVC (9)
Helmet of the 2nd (Earl of Chester’s) Cheshire RVC. Uniform was scarlet with buff facings.
Cheshire RVC (17)
Helmet of the 3rd Cheshire Volunteer’s Battalion. Uniform was scarlet with white facings. A ‘Cheshire Greys’ field service cap is right.

Being a mass movement of volunteers, there were a plethora of local Rifle Volunteer Corps (R.V.C.s) established all around Britain. The county of Lanarkshire alone, for example, raised up to 107 separate corps; Lancashire raised 91; Middlesex raised 50 and Cheshire 36. The latter is significant because a recent visit to the Cheshire Military Museum has inspired my decision to paint rifle volunteers. My first batch of figures will depict a rifle volunteer uniform I saw there; namely the 1st Cheshire R.V.C. also known as the ‘Cheshire Greys’.

cheshire museum (29)
Tunic of the 1st Cheshire R.V.C.

British Rifle Volunteer Corps wore a range of uniforms which reflected the somewhat disparate and localised nature of their formation. The majority wore scarlet tunics, similar to the regular infantry at the time. Also very popular, however, were grey or dark green uniforms, a reflection of their broadly intended role as light infantry marksmen and also a practical recognition of the challenges facing the British army as it approached the 20th century. My chosen 1st Cheshire R.V.C. adopted a uniform of grey with red facings. Interestingly, Beckett’s “Riflemen, Form” informs me that;

“…in March 1883, a War Office Colour Committee recommended the grey uniform of the 3rd Devon Rifle Volunteers… as the pattern for the new service dress, but in the event, Indian Khaki was preferred.”

So it seems that the late-Victorian British army came surprisingly close to looking much like the grey-uniformed rifle volunteers that I’m endeavouring to create!

A couple of examples of the 1st Cheshire R.V.C. grey Home Service pattern helmets were on display in the Cheshire Military Museum, as was the officer’s tunic (left pic below). Perry Miniatures’ officer figures from the Zulu War set should allow me to mimic the braiding on this to some degree.

I’ve chosen six figures and an officer for my first group of volunteer rifles and have a vague idea of grouping them into some kind of basic diorama. I’m no diorama creator, so I use the phrase advisedly! The figures come with separate arms and heads which require gluing onto the bodies, offering opportunities for varied poses. I’m not the best at model assembly either, I admit, so we’ll see how that goes. I’ll post updates on my progress…

 

The Dumpies

As the finishing touches were applied to my Perry Miniatures hussars, I discovered an interesting fact. The regiment that I have painted, the 19th Hussars, were known by the nickname of “The Dumpies”. Apparently, this was an unflattering reference to the below-average height of men in the regiment.

With its origins as an Indian army regiment (the 1st Bengal Light Cavalry), regulations concerning height restrictions were more relaxed than in other British cavalry regiments. As a consequence, the greater proportion of shorter men in the regiment earned them the nickname ‘The Dumpies’.  Being a chap of shorter stature myself, this sounds like exactly my sort of regiment!

19th Hussars (14)

It seems that the 19th Hussars might have also acquired a more inspiring nickname; “The Terrors of the East”. At a mere 28mm in height, I personally think that “The Dumpies” is a name perfectly suited to my three hussar figures.

19th Hussars (25)

There are still nine more hussar figures in this range available from Perry Miniatures, Six of them feature more dynamic poses (charging) and the remaining three include a trumpeter, an NCO and an officer. I fully intend ‘at some point’ in the future to purchase these too and add them to my other ‘dumpies’.

As for my next painting assignment which I’ve been making plans for – all will be revealed in a forthcoming post…

Painting the 19th Hussars: an update

It’s been a sad weekend for me. Receiving the news that my beloved 1-year-old cat Morris had been sadly hit and killed by a car, was a real blow. We shared a close bond, he and I, and I’ll sorely miss the little chap. I loved his comical ways, even when as a kitten he mounted a surprise sortie and captured and ran off with some of my plastic soldiers!

Morris
Morris

At such times, I find my hobby can be a welcome distraction and a consolation. Indeed, through these sad circumstances, I’ve nonetheless managed to carry on and progress with my 19th Hussars. I also managed to find some more depictions of the regiment rooting about my cigarette card collection, including (left) this fine illustration of the regiment’s Kettle Drummer issued by Gallaher in 1898 and (right) a corporal of the 19th Hussars from a collection called “Soldiers of the King” issued by Ogden’s in 1909.

 

 

On the 1898 card it can be seen that the 19th were known as Princess of Wales’s Own, yet by the time of the Ogden’s cigarette card issues they had become the Queen Alexandra’s Own Royal Hussars, following her husband King Edward VII’s accession to the throne after the death of Queen Victoria.

Back to the figures – below are a few photos to show the results of my progress. It’s difficult to see clearly on my photographs but I’ve tried to recreate the key dress features particular to this regiment, such as the yellow lines on the white bag on each busby. There are no plumes on these fellows who appear sculpted more ready for battle than parade!

The horses are now primed and awaiting the first lick of paint. An update of their development to follow…

19th Hussars (2)
One of my troopers representing the 19th Hussars

19th Hussars (3)

19th Hussars (9)

 

 

The 19th (Alexandra, Princess of Wales’s Own) Hussars

The 19th Hussars began life as the 1st Bengal European Light Cavalry in 1858, having been raised by the East India Company in response to the Indian Mutiny.

19th m

Very soon after, they were absorbed into the British army and became a regiment of the crown. Now designated as the 19th Hussars, they became the acknowledged successor regiment to the original 19th Light Dragoons which had been disbanded back in 1821. During the 1880s, the 18th Hussars fought in campaigns in Egypt and the Sudan, including the battles of Tel-el-Kebir, Abu Klea and El Teb.

abu-klea-l-8
The 19th Hussars in the desert, capturing enemy supplies by Richard Caton Woodville

The 19th later found themselves fighting in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, most notably at the Siege of Ladysmith.

19th-Prince-of-Waless-Own-Hussars-1885bbb
19th Prince of Wales’ Hussars in 1885 by Orlando Norie

At the conclusion of their service in the Boer War, the regiment formally became known as the 19th (Alexandra, Princess of Wales’s Own) Hussars (after the wife of Prince Edward).

19th l
A fine watercolour of a hussar of the 19th. Artist unknown to me.

So, why the history lesson? Because my next figures will represent this regiment. Having a lifelong interest in the Victorian army, it is in this re-formed Victorian-era guise that I’m intending to paint the 19th Hussars. In a return to 28mm scale, I’m using Perry Miniatures British Hussars from their excellent “British Intervention Force” series set in the 1860s.

Perry Miniatures

Inspiration for a choice of regiment to paint originally came from some examples of Richard Simkin’s depiction of the regiment found in my collection.

I’ve just the three hussars to paint as a toe in the water. If I’m pleased enough with the end result, I may expand the regiment. Updates on painting progress to follow…

British Cavalry Uniforms of the 19th Century: The 11th Hussars

THE FINAL POST from a series of regular blog posts displaying images from “British Cavalry Uniforms of the 19th Century”; a set of trade cards issued by Badshah Tea Co. of London in 1963. 


#25: The 11th Hussars

“Raised as Dragoons in 1715, this regiment became Light Dragoons in 1783 and Hussars in 1840. On forming Prince Albert’s escort from Dover to Canterbury on his arrival in England, the regiment received the title of ‘Prince Albert’s Own’. This is an officer of 1865.”

Cavalry Uniforms 19th C (4)
Officer, 11th Hussars, c.1865.

Sites of interest about the 11th Hussars:

Horsepower: The museum of the King’s Royal Hussars which is the successor regiment to the 11th Hussars. I can vouch for this museum as being well worth a visit.

The National Army Museum’s page on the 11th Hussars (Prince Albert’s Own).

The 11th Hussars commemorating its 250th anniversary and being awarded its guidon by Elizabeth, the Queen Mother in this fascinating video from 1967 on YouTube. The great military artist Terence Cuneo can be seen painting the regiment in their traditional Hussar uniform with dark red breeches.

Armstrong’s Artillery!

Introducing a detachment from ‘H’ Battery 11th Brigade, Royal Artillery!

My Victorian-era artillery battery from the 1860s is now virtually finished. I really could use a few buckets to dip those sponges into, but I may have to make my own using modelling clay. Being only my second foray into the world of 28mm figures, I’m thinking that, although I am pleased with how they’ve turned out, I would like to develop my technique at this scale a bit further. Nevertheless, I did very much enjoyed painting them.

Royal Artillery 1860s (2)
‘H’ Battery, 11th Brigade, Royal Artillery, 1860s.

 

Royal Artillery 1860s (6)

The figures by Perry Miniatures are terrific and I was really attracted by it being one of my favourite historical topics; early to mid-Victorian era military subjects seemingly under-represented by manufacturers (at least up until the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, anyway!). Some detailed and fascinating information on Armstrong and the development of RML artillery can be found on the excellent Victorian Forts website.

armstrong12prRBL
Contemporary photograph of an Armstrong RBL 12 pounder.

And here are my three gun teams. They represent the processes of loading, aiming and firing the weapon.

 1. Royal Artillery loading an Armstrong RML 12pr.

One is lifting the breach block ready for the man carrying the charge to insert it into the breach. The spongeman has already done his job and extinguished any burning embers remaining in the barrel. (I notice I’ve forgotten to insert the handspike with this team…)

2. Royal Artillery aiming an Armstrong RML 12pr.

The cannon is positioned laterally by using the handspike and is set to the required elevation by means of a screw which can be seen being turned under the end of the barrel.

3. Royal Artillery firing an Armstrong RML 12pr.

Fire! The charge in the cannon is fired by pulling a cord out of the breach block. A little smoke is seen being emited from the breach block as well as the end of the barrel. (Note: yes – my cotton wool smoke looks a bit dodgy as it fell off just before the camera shoot and I lazily just pushed back on!)

Next post: hopefully some news about this year’s Benno’s Figures Forum Group Build. Last year’s 200th anniversary Famous Waterloo Project was a great success and kick-started my own Nappy Cavalry Project.

Fire!

Now in receipt of the two other gun crews of Victorian Royal Artillery figures by Perry Miniatures, I realised I needed to get a little more serious about how I put these things together. I needed to be historically accurate and fully understand the drill and workings of a Victorian-era Royal Artillery battery in receipt of a new-fangled breech-loading Armstrong cannon.

Except, I didn’t.

I just got carried away producing my little diorama without doing enough research. A classic failing of mine, modelling enthusiasm over diligent research. I think the Armstrong may have been painted in a certain colour, though I was uncertain enough over which colour that I just left it as natural wood (something I’d seen previously in one image of the gun on the internet).

Nevertheless, I’m quite pleased with how the first Armstrong 12 pounder and gun crew have (nearly) turned out. I think I’ll paint the cord which was pulled to fire the cannon. You will notice that I added some cotton wool for a smoke effect and may add a tiny bit more coming out of the breech itself from the charge. There are also some implements still to add to the scene: the sponge and the handspike have yet to be added (I’ve been advised where thanks to Paul from Bennos Figures Forum) and the spongeman could really use a bucket to dip his sponge into, but this didn’t come with the set. I might try and make one. The thing is: I’ve stupidly lost the sponge rod! (so I might have to fashion one of those too)…

Nevertheless, historical queries and stupidly lost equpment aside, I’ve really enjoyed putting this artillery team together. New scale (28mm), new era (Victorian), new material (metal), and a new arm (artillery), have made for a fresh challenge.

Images of what I’ve done so far are below. I’ll post ‘finished’ photos in the future, until then, I’m on to painting the next gun teams! I think they look okay.

Victorian Royal Artillery

Straight after attempting my very first 28mm figures, I thought I’d carry on in the scale with one of my recent Christmas presents, Perry Miniatures’ Royal Artillery firing a 12-pounder Armstrong. I’m slowly starting to feel more comfortable painting at this scale but it’s still experimentation. The sculpting is terrific for one who has had a lifelong interest in Victorian military history. I think it might have been last year’s visit to the coastal fort of Hurst Castle that has really inspired me to paint up some Royal Artillery figures from this era.

Never mind tackling the new 28mm scale, after a year of attempting cavalry, painting artillery is well out of my comfort zone too! I’ve now got to turn my attention to how I paint the cannon itself, and then also consider how I’m going to base the whole battery.

And it doesn’t stop there.

There are two more sets of cannon with gunners currently winging their way to me through the post. One group is loading and the other aiming, so with this ‘firing’ group, the whole process will be covered. So it looks as though 28mm Victorian Royal Artillery is now down on 2016’s list of projects!

Oh, and I’m not quite sure about the red backdrop cloth that I used for these photos…